GEOGRAPHY: Canada is a Northern country. Its boundary with the USA extends from ocean to ocean; its land and forests spans between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic ocean to the east. In the north, the Arctic Ocean offers a capricious geography.
10,000,000 km² with space as far as the eye can see, a contrasting climate and long severe winters defining its scenery. The territory is scarcely inhabited and constitutes an immense reservoir of drinking water that is of strategic importance for humanity.
FEDERAL CAPITAL: Ottawa
POPULATION: 33 millions with 63% living in Ontario and Québec – The Aboriginal population is composed of 630 communities. In Québec, the First nations count 11 communities: the Abenakis, the Algonquins, the Attikamekws, the Crees, the Innuats, the Micmacs, the Mohawks, the Malecites, the Naskapis and the Wendats.
Along the St. Lawrence Valley, first colonized by France, the province of Québec is inhabited by a majority population of French descent; francophone minorities are also found in the other provinces, especially in New Brunwick.
After the British conquest, immigrants coming from the United Kingdom developed English speaking colonies all over the territory. Afterwards, the country welcomed immigrants coming from all over the world. The federal State is composed of 10 provinces and of 3 territories with their respective governments.
LIFE EXPECTANCY: 79 years old
LANGUAGES: English and French
CURRENCY: Canadian dollar
STATE: constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy
Queen: Elizabeth II
Governor general: the Right Honourable David Johnston
Prime Minister: M. Stephen Harper
2 MAJOR CHALLENGES:
- the constitutional question: even though a third referendum about sovereignty is not on the agenda for the time being, the recognition of Québec as a distinct society regularly surfaces and remains a constant topic of controversy between the federalists and those who defend the Québec sovereignty.
- the north-American free trade agreement: this agreement has become a fundamental fact in the Canadian political life. Relations intensify with the USA and Mexico, with the risk of developing a greater economic and political dependency next to the Big Brother. The project of a north-American security perimeter demanded following the New York attacks could bring back into question the Canadian immigration policies, and this would mean a humanitarian decline.
Website of the government of Canada
Website of the government of Québec